Stormstown: A Brief History

The village that is now called Stormstown was located on one of the area’s earliest roads. Laid out in 1791-92, the road served as a main route for the shipment of Centre County iron west to Pittsburgh. First settler Abraham Elder’s tavern, on the east end of the village, was a stopping place for iron haulers. In 1812 David Storm recorded a plat of 30 lots, plus a school lot, that he named Walkerville, on the west side of present-day Municipal Lane in the middle of Stormstown. The origin of the Walker connection has not yet been tracked down. Some twenty years after Walkerville was established, Caleb Way slowly started selling off lots between Walkerville and the former site of Elder’ tavern, in an area that was briefly called Wayville. Eventually, by the time of the Civil War, the whole area was called Stormstown. The enterprises of the village included a gristmill, sawmill, distillery, tannery, wagon maker, and several craftsmen’s shops – blacksmith, weaver, potter, and chairmaker. An Easter fire in 1867 destroyed twenty-six buildings, many of which were never rebuilt. – See more at: http://www.centrehistory.org/abcs-of-centre-county/#sthash.RLS2TFw7.dpuf

September 2020 Weather Summary

September was 0.4 deg F below normal for temperature. The high for the month was 85.9 deg. F recorded on September 8. The low for the month was 32.0 deg F, recorded on September 20. There were 0 days at or above 90 deg F and 1 day at or below 32 deg F. There were 171 heating degree days and 88 cooling degree days.

The drought continued into September with below normal precipitation of 2.61 inches of rainfall recorded, which was 1.37 inches below normal. The maximum rainfall in a single day was 1.34 inches recorded on September 29. There were 5 days of rain >.01 in, 5 >.10 in and 1 > 1 in.

High wind speed of 24 mph on September 23.

September 2020 Data

Outlook for October 2020

Drought Eases

I have recorded 1.89 inches of rainfall since last Thursday. The drought isn’t over yet, but there are signs that it is improving.

Most of Centre County is still experiencing a moderate drought. However, our little corner of the county is now abnormally dry. The outlook for the rest of September indicates equal chances for normal rainfall (about 4 inches on average).

Scotty-Porcupine Encounter

On August 31, 2020, our Scotties, Toby and Tillie, had an unfortunate encounter with a porcupine.

Toby, our male Scotty came in from outside before bedtime and we immediately notices the quills in his snout. He was able to eat and drink so we decided to call the vet the first thing in the morning. He got through the night with no issues.

It wasn’t until the next morning, when I gave Tillie a chin scratch, that I was stabbed by two of the quills that were in her snout. The quills are quite sharp, even on the broken ends.

We were right not to try to remove them on our own since the quills are barbed. The barbs expand when they are exposed to body heat, are quite brittle and there is the risk of driving them deeper into the body.

The vet sedated both Scotties and removed the quills. Tilled had 15 embedded quills and Toby had 12. The vet also confirmed that they were porcupine quills. The dogs each received an analgesic and antibiotic.

Until last night, I had no idea that there are porcupines in our area. They live in a narrow range across central PA which includes our region. They are classified as rodents, are herbivores, mostly nocturnal, and are pests due to the damage they can inflict by chewing tree bark, leather and wood in their search for salt.

More on porcupines.

August 2020 Weather Summary

August was 2.2 deg F above normal for temperature. The high for the month was 93.1 deg. F recorded on August 22. The low for the month was 47.0 deg F, recorded on August 20. There were 6 days at or above 90 deg F. There were 24 heating degree days and 259 cooling degree days.

August was a below normal month for precipitation with 1.48 inches of rainfall recorded, which was 0.72 inches below normal. The maximum rainfall in a single day was 0.75 inches recorded on August 28. There were 8 days of rain >.01 in, 3 >.10 in and 0 >1 in.

High wind speed of 30 mph on August 24.

August 2020 Data

Outlook for September 2020

Summary of Summer 2020

Meteorological Summer is officially over. Here is a brief summary of June 1-August 31 in Stormstown, PA:  

Number of days Max T >= 90 F: 18  

Max T: 95.1 – July 18, 2019  

Min T: 40.9 – June 1, 2019  

Jun Dep from Normal: 0.1  

Jul Dep from Normal: 3.8  

Aug Dep from Normal: 2.2  

Heating Degree Days: 108   Cooling Degree Days: 761

The main feature of the summer was the moderate drought conditions that developed during July and August. All of Centre County experienced those conditions. Between June 10, 2020, when it rained 0.91″ and August 28, 2020, when it rained 0.75″, there wasn’t a single day when rainfall exceeded 0.50″. In fact, rainfall has not exceeded 1.00″ of rain, in a day, since June 4.

The outlook for September 2020 shows that the drought abatement is likely.

Precipitation amounts for the summer:

Jun Precip: 4,.80″, 0.94″ above normal  

Jul Precip: 1.19″, 2.27″ below normal  

Aug Precip: 1.18″, 2.66″ below normal    

The 3-month outlook for Autumn 2020:  

2020 Western Pennsylvania Drought

The following was recently posted by the State College National Weather Service Office. The chart was produced by The Mid-Atlantic River Forecast Center (MARFC) which is co-located with The State College National Weather Service Forecast Office.

A neighbor asked to explain why Centre County was depicted as being a standout from the other counties.

For the 60-day period (6/13/2020 through 8/11/2020) Centre County’s areal precipitation was 3.2 inches which was 4.8 inches below normal for the period. A normal amount would have been 8 inches. This works out to be 60% below normal which is above the 50% threshold for the red portion of the scale. By comparison, here are the values for the surrounding counties: Blair 47%, Cambria 29%, Clearfield 47%, Clinton 41%, Huntington 43%, Mifflin 47%, Snyder 44%.

The River Forecast Centers use a distance weighting technique to calculate the areal precipitation. A grid of point estimates is made based on a distance weighting scheme. Each observed point value is given a unique weight for each grid point based on the distance from the grid point in question. The grid point precipitation value is calculated based on the sum of the individual station weight multiplied by observed station value. Once the grid points have all been estimated they are summed and the sum is divided by the number of grid points to obtain the areal average precipitation.

Here is a map of standardized precipitation index (SPI).

There is a bullseye of values between -2 and -1.5 over our region.

The SPI is a widely used index to characterize meteorological drought on a range of timescales. On short timescales, the SPI is closely related to soil moisture, while at longer timescales, the SPI can be related to groundwater and reservoir storage. The SPI uses precipitation only, and can characterize drought or abnormal wetness at different time scales which correspond with the time availability of different water resources (e.g. soil moisture, snowpack, groundwater, river discharge and reservoir storage).

Drought for the Northeast United States

As the above map indicates, southwestern Centre County is experiencing a moderate drought. The criteria for drought classification appears below.

July was lower than normal for precipitation for six counties in central Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania July 2020 Precipitation by County

The above graph shows all of the precipitation data I have collected since establishing my weather station in December 2015 until now. This past July was as dry as July 2016. However, August 2020 is on track to be the driest in 5 years.

Vitamin D and Sunblock

     I recently read an article in the July/August 2020 Reader’s Digest. It was written by a dermatologist who had the view that getting natural Vitamin D is more important than worrying about skin cancer. According to the author, skin cancers from solar exposure are highly treatable. This sounded counterintuitive so I decided to look into it.

     Vitamin D is essential for immune function, elevated mood, muscle and tendon health, and strong bones. However, it is not found in sufficient concentrations in many foods. Due to the lack of exposure to direct sunlight, many people still aren’t getting enough vitamin D, and that deficiency is a worldwide problem.

     The benefits of having sufficient vitamin D are numerous. Studies suggest that vitamin D may prevent certain cancers[1], it may have a role in cognitive function[2], reduce the risk of developing multiple sclerosis[3], and could treat psoriasis[4]. Insufficient vitamin D is also connected to osteoporosis and some types of cancer. Low blood levels are also linked to increased risks of dying prematurely from cardiovascular disease. About 40% of Americans are deficient with vitamin D. Rates are higher for blacks 80%, and Hispanics at 70%, due to darker skin pigmentation[5].

    Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by specific medical conditions. These include cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, weight loss surgeries, obesity, kidney and liver diseases. Some medications can cause vitamin D deficiency as well. These include laxatives, steroids (such as prednisone), cholesterol-lowering drugs, and seizure control drugs, [10].

     The best way to get enough vitamin D is from direct sunlight[6]. However, there is no clinical evidence that sunblocks inhibit vitamin D production[7]. The use of sunblocks is still recommended to prevent certain cancers. Getting 15-20 minutes of sunlight on your face, arms, back, or legs without sunscreen a few times a week is enough to generate your body’s vitamin D needs for a week[8][10] This is especially true in the winter months. There is no set standard for sufficient exposure times, but it is not necessary to get a tan.

     Diet is usually recommended by nutritionists to be the best way to obtain supplemental vitamin D. However, most foods lack sufficient amounts of vitamin D, but it may be obtained from fortified milk, fortified cereal, and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines[8]. Taken in appropriate doses, vitamin D supplements are generally considered safe. However, taking too much vitamin D can be harmful. Children age 9 years and older, adults, and pregnant and breast-feeding women who take more than 4,000 IU a day of vitamin D might experience adverse effects[8].

     There remain concerns about skin cancers, the most common form of cancer in The United States. Overexposure to sunlight should be avoided, especially when at a young age since the damage is accumulative over time. UV light from tanning beds is just as harmful. 

     Basal cell and squamous cell cancers are less serious types and makeup 95% of all skin cancers. Also referred to as non-melanoma skin cancers, they are highly curable when treated early. Melanoma, made up of abnormal skin pigment cells called melanocytes, is the most serious form of skin cancer and causes 75% of all skin cancer deaths. Left untreated, it can spread to other organs and is difficult to control[9].

     If you suspect you have a vitamin D deficiency, you can find out from your doctor or at-home test kits are available. Considering the cost of a kit ($35 – $80), the co-pay amount for a doctor’s visit, or whether you’re insured, should be taken into account. It’s up to you to verify the efficacy and laboratory standards of the manufacturer. 

      Vitamin D is key to the prevention of many illnesses, including hypertension. Sunblock still should be used during periods of high UV exposure. Exposure to direct sunlight, using sunblock, for 15-minutes, at least 3 times per week should be made to obtain enough vitamin D. This may be supplemented through diet and the judicious use of supplements. 

References:

  1. National Cancer Institute (NIH) – Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention
    https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/vitamin-d-fact-sheet
  2. Soni et al, 2012, Vitamin D and Cognitive Function, Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2012;243:79-82
  3. Multiple sclerosis: Vitamin D deficiency may predict onset – Medical News Today
    https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319405#Studying-vitamin-D-and-MS-risk
  4. Association between Vitamin D deficiency and psoriasis: An exploratory study – International Journal of Health Sciences
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870311/
  5. Forrest and Stulhdreher, 2011, Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency in US Adults, Nutr Res.:31(1):48-54
  6. 3 Best Ways To Get Vitamin D This Winter – Medical News Bulletin
    https://medicalnewsbulletin.com/3-best-ways-get-vitamin-d/#:~:text=What%20are%20the%20best%20ways%20to%20get%20vitamin,fish%20%28e.g.%20…%203%20Take%20vitamin%20D%20supplements
  7. Sun Protection and Vitamin D – Skin Cancer Foundation
    https://www.skincancer.org/blog/sun-protection-and-vitamin-d/
  8. Vitamin D – The Mayo Clinic
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-d/art-20363792
  9. Sun Exposure & Skin Cancer – The Cleveland Clinic
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/10985-sun-exposure–skin-cancer
  10. Vitamin D Deficiency – The Cleveland Clinic
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/15050-vitamin-d–vitamin-d-deficiency

July 2020 Weather Summary

July was 3.8 deg F above normal for temperature. The high for the month was 95.1 deg. F recorded on July 18. The low for the month was 54.7 deg F, recorded on July 14. There were 12 days at or above 90 deg F. There were 13 heating degree days and 334 cooling degree days.

July was a below normal month for precipitation with 1.19 inches of rainfall recorded, which was 2.27 inches below normal. The maximum rainfall in a single day was 0.33 inches recorded on July 31. There were 9 days of rain >.01 in, 4 >.10 in and 0 >1 in.

High wind speed of 29 mph on July 19.

July 2020 Data

Outlook for August 2020.

My First Images of Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3)

On July 13, 2020, I assembled my equipment to see if I could get images of Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3). I used my sturdiest tripod, remote shutter release, DSLR camera and binoculars. I set up on my deck, behind our house, which faces to the northwest. At about 8:45 PM EDT, I started by observation session.

Conditions were a little less than ideal. The sky along the horizon looked hazy and it was still twilight. The stars were not visible, which made it hard to find the comet without any points of reference. I scanned the skies with my binoculars to try to find it. Around 9:45 PM EDT, I thought it was a bust and began to break the equipment down for the night. I thought that it had already set behind Bald Eagle Ridge. However, I decided to scan the sky one last time. That’s when I spotted NEOWISE with my binoculars. I quickly set up again, pointed the camera in the general area, at 100 mm focal length, and got the following image.

2 sec exposure, f/4.7, ISO 1600, Focal Length 103

I centered the image in the viewfinder, zoomed in to 200 mm focal length, and took several more images before the comet faded in the haze and set behind the tree. The following images were the two best results.

2 sec exposure, f/5.6, ISO 1600, Focal Length 200
2 sec exposure, f/5.6, ISO 1600, Focal Length 200

The following night, I was able to take this image.

2 sec exposure, f/5.6, ISO 1600, Focal Length 200

Comet Neowise (C/2020 F3)

Comet C/2020 F3 NEOWISE (Neowise, for short) is the third comet this year to be discovered by astronomers. It may become a bright, naked eye object, beginning July 11, if it survives its closest approach to The Sun. Some comets either breakup or fall into The Sun at perihelion.

Neowise has already made an appearance in the early morning hours, and some have taken photographs.

Neowise over Toronto

The comet will make its closest approach to Earth on July 23, which may make for a spectacular viewing opportunity if it holds together. Neowise will also be a bit higher in the sky on July 24 and 25.

There hasn’t been a bright comet since Hale-Bopp in 1997. However, comets are notoriously unpredictable, and this one could break up and burn out at any time. 

Here’s where you can spot the comet beginning Sunday, July 11. Online resources like TheSkyLive also offer similar night sky maps.